# José A. Cañizo - Homepage

# José A. Cañizo

I am associate professor at the Department of Applied Mathematics of the University of Granada. I work on mathematical models in biology and physics, mainly based on partial differential equations. This includes kinetic equations, coagulation and fragmentation models, and nonlocal PDE in several contexts. I am interested in analytic properties of these models, their asymptotic behaviour, and related mathematical techniques.

I am a member of the Institute of Mathematics of the University of Granada (IMAG).

Here’s a summary of things on this site:

**Research.**Some updates on my research, a full list of preprints and publications, some informal notes on various topics, and other things!**Teaching / docencia.**List of courses I have taught and some publicly accessible lecture notes and material (most of them in Spanish).**Photo collection.**Some photos from conferences and places.**Other things.**Some LaTeX templates for papers and posters, technical details on LaTeX things, and anything else which doesn’t fit elsewhere.**Contact information.**My email is canizo@ugr.es and my phone (+34) 958 24 08 27. See here for mailing address and other details.

## Preprints & recent publications

Below you can find some recent papers. A full list can be found here.

### Preprints

**On the asymptotic behavior of the NNLIF neuron model for general connectivity strength**. 2024.We prove new results on the asymptotic behavior of the nonlinear integrate-and-fire neuron model. Among them, we give a criterion for the linearized stability or instability of equilibria, without restriction on the connectivity parameter, which provides a proof of stability or instability in some cases. In all cases, this criterion can be checked numerically, allowing us to give a full picture of the stable and unstable equilibria depending on the connectivity parameter and transmission delay. We also give further spectral results on the associated linear equation, and use them to give improved results on the nonlinear stability of equilibria for weak connectivity, and on the link between linearized and nonlinear stability.

**The sequence of pseudo-equilibria describes the long-time behaviour of the NNLIF model with large delay**. 2024.There is a wide range of mathematical models that describe populations of large numbers of neurons. In this article, we focus on nonlinear noisy leaky integrate and fire (NNLIF) models that describe neuronal activity at the level of the membrane potential of neurons. We introduce a set of novel states, which we call “pseudo-equilibria”, and give evidence of their defining role in the behaviour of the NNLIF system when a significant synaptic delay is considered. The advantage is that these states are determined solely by the system’s parameters and are derived from a sequence of firing rates that result from solving a recurrence equation. We propose a new strategy to show convergence to an equilibrium for a weakly connected system with large transmission delay, based on following the sequence of pseudo-equilibria. Unlike with the direct entropy dissipation method, this technique allows us to see how a large delay favours convergence. We also present a detailed numerical study to support our results. This study explores the overall behaviour of the NNLIF system and helps us understand, among other phenomena, periodic solutions in strongly inhibitory networks.

**Discrete minimizers of the interaction energy in collective behavior: a brief numerical and analytic review**. 2024.We consider minimizers of the N-particle interaction potential energy and briefly review numerical methods used to calculate them. We consider simple pair potentials which are repulsive at short distances and attractive at long distances, focusing on examples which are sums of two powers. The range of powers we look at includes the well-known case of the Lennard-Jones potential, but we are also interested in less singular potentials which are relevant in collective behavior models. We report on results using the software GMIN developed by Wales and collaborators for problems in chemistry. For all cases, this algorithm gives good candidates for the minimizers for relatively low values of the particle number $N$. This is well-known for potentials similar to Lennard-Jones, but not for the range which is of interest in collective behavior. Standard minimization procedures have been used in the literature in this range, but they are likely to yield stationary states which are not minimizers. We illustrate numerically some properties of the minimizers in 2D, such as lattice structure, Wulff shapes, and the continuous large-$N$ limit for locally integrable (that is, less singular) potentials.

**One-dimensional inelastic Boltzmann equation: Regularity & uniqueness of self-similar profiles for moderately hard potentials**. 2023.We prove uniqueness of self-similar profiles for the one-dimensional inelastic Boltzmann equation with moderately hard potentials, that is with collision kernel of the form $| \cdot |^\gamma$ for $\gamma > 0$ small enough (explicitly quantified). Our result provides the first uniqueness statement for self-similar profiles of inelastic Boltzmann models allowing for strong inelasticity besides the explicitly solvable case of Maxwell interactions (corresponding to $\gamma = 0$). Our approach relies on a perturbation argument from the corresponding Maxwell model through a careful study of the associated linearised operator. In particular, a part of the paper is devoted to the trend to equilibrium for the Maxwell model in suitable weighted Sobolev spaces, an extension of results which are known to hold in weaker topologies. Our results can be seen as a first step towards a full proof, in the one-dimensional setting, of a conjecture in Ernst & Brito (2002) regarding the determination of the long-time behaviour of solutions to inelastic Boltzmann equation.

### Some recent publications (see full list here)

**Harris-type results on geometric and subgeometric convergence to equilibrium for stochastic semigroups**.*Journal of Functional Analysis*284(7):109830, 2023.We provide simple and constructive proofs of Harris-type theorems on the existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium and the speed of equilibration of discrete-time and continuous-time stochastic semigroups. Our results apply both to cases where the relaxation speed is exponential (also called geometric) and to those with no spectral gap, with non-exponential speeds (also called subgeometric). We give constructive estimates in the subgeometric case and discrete-time statements which seem both to be new. The method of proof also differs from previous works, based on semigroup and interpolation arguments, valid for both geometric and subgeometric cases with essentially the same ideas. In particular, we present very simple new proofs of the geometric case.

**The scaling hypothesis for Smoluchowski’s coagulation equation with bounded perturbations of the constant kernel**.*Journal of Differential Equations*270:285–342, 2021.We consider Smoluchowski’s coagulation equation with a kernel of the form $K=2+\epsilon W$, where $W$ is a bounded kernel of homogeneity zero. For small $\epsilon$, we prove that solutions approach a universal, unique self-similar profile for large times, at almost the same speed as the constant kernel case (the speed is exponential when self-similar variables are considered). All the constants we use can be explicitly estimated. Our method is a constructive perturbation analysis of the equation, based on spectral results on the linearisation of the constant kernel case. To our knowledge, this is the first time the scaling hypothesis can be fully proved for a family of kernels which are not explicitly solvable.

**Contractivity for Smoluchowski’s coagulation equation with solvable kernels**.*Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society*53(1):248–258, 2021.We show that the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with the solvable kernels $K(x,y)$ equal to $2$, $x+y$ or $xy$ is contractive in suitable Laplace norms. In particular, this proves exponential convergence to a self-similar profile in these norms. These results are parallel to similar properties of Maxwell models for Boltzmann-type equations, and extend already existing results on exponential convergence to self-similarity for Smoluchowski’s coagulation equation.

**Spectral gap for the growth-fragmentation equation via Harris’s Theorem**.*SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis*53(5):5185–5214, 2021.We study the long-time behaviour of the growth-fragmentation equation, a nonlocal linear evolution equation describing a wide range of phenomena in structured population dynamics. We show the existence of a spectral gap under conditions that generalise those in the literature by using a method based on Harris’s theorem, a result coming from the study of equilibration of Markov processes. The difficulty posed by the non-conservativeness of the equation is overcome by performing an $h$-transform, after solving the dual Perron eigenvalue problem. The existence of the direct Perron eigenvector is then a consequence of our methods, which prove exponential contraction of the evolution equation. Moreover the rate of convergence is explicitly quantifiable in terms of the dual eigenfunction and the coefficients of the equation.

**Hypocoercivity of linear kinetic equations via Harris’s Theorem**.*Kinetic and Related Models*13(1):97–128, 2020.We study convergence to equilibrium of the linear relaxation Boltzmann (also known as linear BGK) and the linear Boltzmann equations either on the torus $(x,v)∈ \mathbb{T}^d \times \R^d$ or on the whole space $(x,v) ∈\R^d \times \R^d$ with a confining potential. We present explicit convergence results in total variation or weighted total variation norms (alternatively $L^1$ or weighted $L^1$ norms). The convergence rates are exponential when the equations are posed on the torus, or with a confining potential growing at least quadratically at infinity. Moreover, we give algebraic convergence rates when subquadratic potentials considered. We use a method from the theory of Markov processes known as Harris’s Theorem.

**Uniform moment propagation for the Becker-Döring equation**.*Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Section A: Mathematics*149(4):995–1015, 2019.We show uniform-in-time propagation of algebraic and stretched exponential moments for the Becker-Döring equations. Our proof is based upon a suitable use of the maximum principle together with known rates of convergence to equilibrium.